Dr. Candace H. Haigler

Professor of Crop Science and Plant Biology

Cellulose Biology and Biotechnology

Research Interests:

The research in the Haigler laboratory centers on cellulose synthesis and cotton fiber development. The fundamental new knowledge arising from our research is applicable to the production of next-generation value-added fiber and biomass crops through genetic engineering or marker-assisted selection.

Cellulose is the world’s most abundant renewable material, and it exists within plant cell walls as crystalline fibrils. These are formed by a membrane-associated protein complex that acts as a nanoscale fibril spinning machine. We are interested in filling in many gaps about how this fascinating and important natural manufacturing process is regulated by the cell. We use genetics and biochemistry to probe the structure and function of the cellulose synthesis complex. Our cellulose research is funded by the “Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation (CLSF)”, an Energy Frontier Research Center led by Dr. Daniel Cosgrove at Pennsylvania State University and funded by the US Department of Energy.

We study cotton fiber, the world’s most important natural textile fiber, to understand the controls of cellular morphogenesis and fiber quality. Each cotton fiber is a single seed epidermal cell that becomes about three centimeters long and thickens by depositing nearly 100% cellulose into its secondary cell wall. We are particularly interested in the cellular, molecular, and biochemical processes that allow high quality fiber to form in the less commonly grown Gossypium barbadense (Pima cotton). Our goal is transfer high quality fiber to the higher yielding G. hirsutum cotton. Our cotton fiber research is funded by Cotton Incorporated (Cary, NC).

Selected Recent Publications:

Andres RJ, Coneva V, Frank MH, Tuttle JR, Han S-W, Samayoa LF, Han S-W, Kaur B, Zhu L, Fang H, Bowman DT, Rojas Pierce M, Haigler CH, Jones DC, Holland JB, Chitwood DH, Kuraparthy V (2016) Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114: E57-E56, doi:10.1073/pnas.1613593114. 

Nixon BT, Mansouri K, Singh A, Du J, Davis JK, Lee JG, Slabaugh E, Vandavasi VG, O’Neill H, Roberts EM, Roberts AW, Yingling YG, Haigler CH (2016) Comparative structural and computational analysis supports eighteen cellulose synthases in the plant cellulose synthesis complex. Scientific Reports 6, 28696; doi 10.1038/srep28696.

Stiff MR, Haigler CH (2016) Cotton fiber tips have diverse morphologies and show evidence of apical cell wall synthesis. Scientific Reports 6, 27883, doi: 10.1038.srep27883.

Vandavasi VG, Putnam D, Zhang Q, Petridis L, Heller W, Nixon BT, Haigler CH, Kalluri U, Coates L, Langan P, Smith J, Meiler J, O’Neill H (2016) A structural study of recombinant CESA1 catalytic domain of Arabidopsis thaliana cellulose synthesis complex: evidence for CESA trimers, Plant Physiology 170: 123-135, DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.01356 (on-line Nov 10, 2015). Featured on the cover of the journal.

Sethaphong L, Davis JK, Slabaugh E, Haigler CH*, Yingling YG* (2016) Prediction of the structures of the plant-specific regions of vascular plant cellulose synthases and correlated functional analysis, Cellulose 23: 145-161. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-015-0789-6, (*co-corresponding authors). Featured on the cover of the journal.

Slabaugh E, Scavuzzo-Duggan T, Chaves A, Wilson L, Davis JK, Cosgrove DJ, Anderson CT, Roberts AW, Haigler CH (2016) The valine and lysine residues in the conserved FxVTxK motif are important for the function of phylogenetically distant plant cellulose synthases, Glycobiology 26: 509-519, DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwv118.

Haigler CH, Davis JK, Slabaugh E, Kubicki JD (2016) Biosynthesis and assembly of cellulose, In: R.J. Rose (ed.), Molecular Cell Biology of the Growth and Differentiation of Plant Cells Taylor and Francis Group, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 120-138 (387 total pages, Print ISBN: 978-1-4987-2602-3, eBook ISBN: 978-1-4987-2603-0, DOI: 10.1201/b20316).

Stiff MR, Tuttle JR, Graham BP, Haigler CH (2016) Cotton fiber biotechnology: potential controls and transgenic improvement of elongation and cell wall thickening. In: KG Ramawat, MR Ahuja (eds.) Fiber Plants Biology Biotechnology and Applications, Sustainable Development and Biodiversity 13, Springer International Publishing: Cham, Switzerland. pp. 127 – 153, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-44570-0_8

Tuttle JR, Haigler CH, Robertson D (2015) Virus-induced gene silencing of fiber-related genes in cotton, In: Plant Gene Silencing/Methods in Molecular Biology. Ed. Kiran Mysore. New York: Humana Press. pp. 219-234, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2453-0_16

Tuttle, JR, Nah G, Duke MV, Alexander DC, Guan X, Song Q, Chen ZJ, Scheffler BE, Haigler CH (2015) Metabolomic and transcriptomic insights into how cotton fiber transitions to secondary wall synthesis, represses lignification, and prolongs elongation, BMC Genomics 16:477 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-015-1708-9, Open Access URL. 

Lee CM, Kafle K, Belias DW, Park YB, Glick RE, Haigler CH, Kim SH (2015) Comprehensive analysis of cellulose content, crystallinity, and lateral packing in Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense cotton fibers using Sum Frequency Generation, Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, Cellulose 22: 971-989, DOI 10.1007/s10570-014-0535-5

Slabaugh E, Sethaphong L, Xiao D, Amick J, Anderson CT, Haigler CH*, Yingling YG* (2014) Computational and genetic evidence that different structural conformations of a non-catalytic region affect the function of plant cellulose synthase, Journal of Experimental Botany 65: 6645-6653, doi:10.1093/jxb/eru383 (*co-corresponding authors)

Haigler CH, Grimson MJ, Gervais J, Le Moigne N, Hofte H, Monasse B, Navard P (2014) Molecular modeling and imaging of initial stages of cellulose fibril assembly: evidence for a disordered intermediate state. PLOS ONE 9(4): e93981, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093981, Open Access URL.

Slabaugh E, Davis JK, Haigler CH, Yingling YG, Zimmer J (2014) Cellulose synthases: new insights from crystallography and modeling. Trends in Plant Science 19: 99-106, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2013.09.009

Abidi N, Cabrales L, Haigler CH (2014) Changes in the cell wall and cellulose content of developing cotton fibers analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Carbohydrate Polymers 100: 9-16, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.01.074

Sethaphong L, Haigler CH, Kubicki JD, Zimmer J, Bonetta D, DeBolt S, Yingling YG (2013) Tertiary model of a plant cellulose synthase, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 110: 7512-7517. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1301027110.

Avci U, Pattathil S, Singh B, Brown VL, Hahn MG, Haigler CH (2013) Cotton fiber cell walls of Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense have differences related to loosely-bound xyloglucan, PLOS ONE 8(2): e56315. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056315

Paterson AH, Wendel JF, Gundlach H, Guo H, Jenkins J, Jin D, Llewellyn D, Showmaker KC, Shu S, Udall J, Yoo M-J, Byers R, W, Doron-Faigenboim A, Duke MV, Gong L, Grimwood J, Grover C, Grupp K, Hu G, Lee T-H, Li J, Lin L, Liu T, Marler BS, Page JT, Roberts AW, Romanel E, Sanders WS, Szadkowski E, Tan X, Tang H, Xu C, Wang J, Wang Z, Zhang D, Zhang L, Ashrafi H, Bedon F, Bowers JE, Brubaker CL, Chee PW, Das S, Gingle AR, Haigler CH, Harker D, Hoffmann LV, Hovav R, Jones DC, Lemke C, Mansoor S, Rahman M-ur, Rainville LN , Rambani A, Reddy UK, Rong J-K, Saranga Y, Scheffler BE, Scheffler JA, Stelly DM, Triplett BA, Deynze AV, Vaslin MFS, Waghmare VN, Walford SA, Wright RJ, Zaki EA, Zhang T, Dennis ES, Mayer KFX, Peterson DG, Rokhsar DS, Wang X, & Schmutz J (2012) Repeated polyploidization of Gossypium genomes and the evolution of spinnable cotton fibres. Nature 492: 423–427, doi:10.1038/nature11798

Tuttle JR, Haigler CH, Robertson D (2012) Method: low-cost delivery of the cotton leaf crumple virus-induced gene silencing system. Plant Methods 8:27, doi:10.1186/1746-4811-8-27, http://www.plantmethods.com/content/8/1/27 (8 pages)

Roberts AW, Roberts EM, Haigler CH (2012) Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis. Frontiers in Plant Science 3:166. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00166 (7 pages)

Haigler CH, Betancur L, Stiff MR, Tuttle JR (2012) Cotton fiber: a powerful single-cell model for cell wall and cellulose research. Frontiers in Plant Science 3:104. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00104 (7 pages)

Stiff MR, Haigler CH (2012) Recent advances in cotton fiber development. In DM Oosterhuis and JT Cothren, eds, Flowering and Fruiting in Cotton (http://www.cotton.org/foundation/fandfcontents.cfm), Cotton Physiology Book Series, The Cotton Foundation, Cordova TN, pp. 163-192.

Taliercio E, Haigler CH (2011) The effect of calcium on early fiber elongation in cotton ovule culture. Journal of Cotton Science 15: 154-161

Joshi CP, Thammannagowda S, Fujino T, Gou J-Q, Avci U, Haigler CH, McDonnell LM, Mansfield SD, Menghesa B, Carpita NC, Harris D, DeBolt S, Peter GF (2011) Perturbation of wood cellulose synthesis causes pleiotropic effects in transgenic aspen. Molecular Plant4: 331-345,doi: 10.1093/mp/ssq081.

Santa-Maria MC, Yencho CG, Haigler CH, Thompson WF, Kelly RM, Sosinski B (2011) Starch self-processing in transgenic sweetpotato roots expressing a hyperthermophilic alpha-amylase. Biotechnology Progress 27: 351-359

Rapp RA, Haigler CH, Flagel L, Hovav RH, Udall JA, Wendel JF  (2010) Gene expression in developing fibers of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was massively altered by domestication. BMC Biology 2010, 8:139, doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-139  Open access article; a Highly Accessed Article. An accompanying commentary article by BL Gross and JL Strasburg is open access.

Idris AM, Tuttle JR, Robertson D, Haigler CH, Brown JK (2010) Differential cotton leaf crumple virus-VIGS-mediated gene silencing and viral genome localization in different Gossypium hirsutum genetic backgrounds.Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 75: 13-22doi:10.1016/j.pmpp.2010.07.002

Paterson AH, Rong J-K, Gingle AR, Chee PW, Dennis ES, Llewellyn D, Dure LS III, Haigler C, Myers GO, Peterson DG, ur Rahman M, Zafar Y, Reddy U, Saranga Y, Stewart JM, Udall JA, Waghmare VN, Wendel JF, Wilkins TA, Wright RJ, Elsayed EZ, Hafez EE, Zhu J (2010) Sequencing and utilization of theGossypium genomes. Tropical Plant Biology 3: 71-74, DOI 10.1007/s12042-010-9051-4. This article was featured on the cover of the journal.

Livingston DP III, Tuong TD, Gadi SRV, Haigler CH, Gelman RS, Cullen JM (2010) 3D volumes constructed from pixel-based images by digitally clearing plant and animal tissue. Journal of Microscopy 240: 122-129doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.2010.03393.x. This article was featured on the cover of the journal.

Betancur L, Singh B, Rapp RA, Wendel JF, Marks MD, Roberts AR, Haigler CH (2010) Phylogenetically distinct cellulose synthase genes support secondary wall thickening in arabidopsis shoot trichomes and cotton fiber. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 52: 205-220, DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00934.x. Invited article for the special issue, THE PLANT CELL SURFACE. Open Access Article.

Singh B, Avci U, Eichler Inwood SE, Grimson MJ, Landgraf J, Mohnen D, Sørensen I, Wilkerson CG, Willats WGT, Haigler CH (2009) A specialized outer layer of the primary cell wall joins elongating cotton fibers into tissue-like bundles. Plant Physiology 150: 684-699. doi: 10.1104/pp.109.135459.This article was featured on the cover of the journal. Open Access Article:

Singh B, Cheek HD, Haigler CH (2009) A synthetic auxin (NAA) suppresses secondary wall cellulose synthesis and enhances elongation in cultured cotton fiber, Plant Cell Reports 28: 1023-1032. doi: 10.1007/s00299-009-0714-2

Livingston DP III, Tuong TD, Haigler CH, Avci U, Tallury SP (2009) Rapid microwave processing of winter cereals for histology allows identification of separate zones of freezing injury in the crown. Crop Science 49: 1-6. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2009.02.0077.

Santa-Maria M, Chou C-J, Yencho C, Haigler C, Thompson WF, Kelly RM, Sosinski B (2009) Plant cell calcium-rich environment enhances thermostability of recombinantly produced a-amylase from the hyperthermophilicbacterium Thermotoga maritima.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 104: 947-956, doi: 10.1002/bit.22468.

Haigler CH, Roberts AW (2009) Biogenesis of cellulose nanofibrils by a biological nanomachine, In The Nanoscience and Technology of Renewable Biomaterials (Lucian Lucia and Orlando Rojas, eds.) Wiley-Blackwell Publishing: Oxford UK, 368 pp.

Haigler CH, Singh B, Wang G, Zhang D (2009) Genomics of cotton fiber secondary wall deposition and cellulose biogenesis. In: Paterson AH (ed.) Genetics and Genomics of Cotton, Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models 3, Springer Science + Business Media, LLC: New York, pp. 385-417, DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-70810-216.

Marks MD, Betancur L, Gilding E, Chen F, Bauer S, Wenger J, Dixon RA, Haigler CH (2008) A new method for isolating large quantities of Arabidopsis trichomes for transcriptome, cell wall and other types of analyses.Plant Journal 56: 483-492 (doi: 10.111/j/1365-313X.2008/03611.x, a Technical Advance article, with cover picture).

Avci U, Petzold, HE, Ismail IO, Beers EP, Haigler CH (2008) Cysteine proteases XCP1 and XCP2 aid micro-autolysis within the intact central vacuole during xylogenesis in Arabidopsis roots. Plant Journal 56: 303-313,doi: 10.111/j.1365-313X.2008.03592.x.

Tuttle JR, Idris AM, Brown JK, Haigler CH, Robertson D (2008) Geminivirus-mediated gene silencing from cotton leaf crumple virus is enhanced by low temperature inGossypium hirsutum, Plant Physiology 148: 41-50 (doi: 10.1104/pp.108.123869, a Breakthrough Technologies article).

Chen ZJ, Scheffler BE, Dennis E, Triplett B, Zhang T, Chen X, Stelly DM, Rabinowicz PD,  Town C,, Arioli T,  Brubaker  C, Cantrell R, Lacape J-M,  Ulloa M,  Chee P, Gingle AR, Haigler CH, Percy R, Saha S, Wilkins T, Wright RJ, Deynze AV, Zhu Y, Yu S, Guo W, Abdurakhmonov I, Katageri  I, Rahman M,  Zafar Y, Yu JZ, Kohel RJ, Wendel  J, and Paterson AH (2007) Towards sequencing cotton (Gossypium) genomes. Plant Physiology 145: 1303-1310.

Zhao C, Avci U, Grant EH, Haigler CH, and Beers EP (2007) XND1, a member of the NAC domain family inArabidopsis thaliana, negatively regulates lignocellulose production and programmed cell death in xylem. Plant Journal 53: 425-436 (This article was featured on the cover of the journal).

Haigler CH, Singh B, Zhang D, Hwang S, Wu C, Cai WX, Hozain M, Kang W, Kiedaisch B, Strauss RE, Hequet EF, Wyatt BG, Jividen GM, Holaday AS. 2007. Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved fiber quality under controlled environmental conditions. Plant Molecular Biology 63: 815-83

Haigler, C.H. 2007. Substrate supply for cellulose synthesis and its stress sensitivity in the cotton fiber. In: Brown RM Jr, Saxena I (eds) Cellulose: Molecular and Structural Biology, Springer: New York, pp. 145 – 166.

Udall JA, Swanson JM, Haller K, Rapp RA, Sparks ME, Hatfield J, Yu Y, Wu Y, Dowd C, Arpat AB, Sickler BA, Wilkins TA, Guo JY, Chen XY, Scheffler J, Talierco E, Turley R, McFadden H, Payton P, Allen R, Zhang D, Haigler C, Wilkerson C, Suo J, Schulze SR, Pierce ML, Essenberg M, Kim H, Llewellyn DJ, Dennis ES, Kudrna D, Wing R, Paterson AH, Soderlund C, Wendel JF (2006) A global assembly of cotton ESTs. Genome Research 16: 441-50.

Haigler, C.H. 2006. Establishing the cellular and biophysical context of cellulose synthesis. In: T. Hayashi, ed. The Science and Lore of the Plant Cell Wall: Biosynthesis, Structure and Function, Brown Walker Press: Boca Raton, FL, pp. 97 – 105.

Singh B, Haley L, Nightengale J, Kang WH, Haigler CH, Holaday AS. 2005. Long-term night chilling of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, does not result in reduced CO2 assimilation. Functional Plant Biology 32: 655-666

Haigler, C.H., Zhang, D., Wilkerson, C.G. 2005. Biotechnological improvement of cotton fiber maturity. Physiologia Plantarum 124: 285-294.

Roberts, A.W., Frost, A.O., Roberts, E.M., and Haigler, C.H. 2004. Roles of microtubules and cellulose microfibril assembly in the localization of secondary cell wall synthesis in developing tracheary elements. Protoplasma 224: 217-229.

Martin, L.K. and C.H. Haigler. 2004. Cool temperature hinders flux from glucose to sucrose during cellulose synthesis in secondary wall stage cotton fibers. Cellulose 11: 339-349.

Zhang, D., M. Hrmova, C.-H. Wan, C. Wu, J. Balzen, W. Cai, J. Wang, L.D. Densmore, G.B. Fincher, H. Zhang and C.H. Haigler. 2004. Members of a new group of chitinase-like genes are expressed preferentially in cotton cells with secondary walls. Plant Molecular Biology 54:353-372.

Kiedaisch, B.M., Blanton, R. L., Haigler, C. H. 2003. Characterization of a novel cellulose synthesis inhibitor. Planta 217: 922-930.

Haigler CH. 2003. Progress and emerging questions in understanding cellulose biogenesis. Proceedings, Vol. 1: 12th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, Univ. Wisconsin-Madison, pp. 9-16.

Salnikov, V., Grimson, M.J., Seagull, R.W., Haigler, C.H. 2003. Localization of sucrose synthase and callose in freeze substituted, secondary wall stage, cotton fibers. Protoplasma 221: 175-184.

Delmer, D.P. and Haigler, C.H. 2002. The regulation of metabolic flux to cellulose, a major sink for carbon in plants. Metabolic Engineering 4: 22-28

Babb, V.M. and Haigler, C.H. 2001. Sucrose phosphate synthase activity rises in correlation with high-rate cellulose synthesis in three heterotrophic systems. Plant Physiology 127: 1234-1242.

Haigler, C.H., Babb. V.M., Hwang, S., and Salnikov, V.V. 2001. Regulation of cellulose biosynthesis in developing xylem. In Molecular Breeding of Woody Plants, N Morohoshi and A Komamine, eds, Elsevier Science B.V.: Amsterdam, pp. 1 – 9.

Haigler, C.H., M. Ivanova-Datcheva, P. S. Hogan, V. V. Salnikov, S. Hwang, L. K. Martin, and Delmer, D.P. 2001. Carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis. Plant Molecular Biology 47: 29-51.

Salnikov, V.V, Grimson, M.J., Delmer, D.P., and Haigler, C.H. 2001. Sucrose synthase localizes to cellulose synthesis sites in tracheary elements. Phytochemistry 57: 823-833.

Haigler, C.H., Cai, W.X., Gannaway, J.G., Grimson, M.J., Hequet, E.F., Holaday, A.S., Huang, J.-Y., Jaradat, T.T., Jividen, G.J., Krieg, D.R., Martin, L.K., Nagarur, S., Salnikov, V.V., Strauss, R.E., Tummala, J., Wan, C.H., Wu, C., Wyatt, B.G., and Zhang, H. 2000. Optimizing secondary wall synthesis in cotton fibers. In: C.R. Benedict, ed., Genetic Control of Cotton Fiber and Seed Quality, Cotton Incorporated: Cary, NC, pp. 147-165.

Roberts, A.W., S.G. Donovan, and C.H. Haigler. 1997. A secreted factor induces cell expansion and formation of metaxylem-like tracheary elements in xylogenic suspension cultures of Zinnia Plant Physiology 115: 683-692.

Grimson, M.J., C.H. Haigler, and R.L. Blanton. 1996. Cellulose microfibrils, cell motility, and plasma membrane organization change in parallel during culmination in Dictyostelium discoideum. Journal of Cell Science 109:3079 – 3087.

Haigler, C.H. and R.L. Blanton. 1996. (Invited Commentary) New hope for old dreams: Evidence that plant cellulose synthase genes have finally been identified. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93: 12082-12085.

Taylor, J.G., C.H. Haigler, D.G. Kilburn, and R.L. Blanton. 1996. Detection of cellulose with improved specificity using laser-based instruments. Biotechnic and Histochemistry 71: 215-223.

Blanton, R.L. and C.H. Haigler. 1996. Cellulose biosynthesis, in M. Smallwood, J.P. Knox, and D.J. Bowles, eds. Membranes: Specialized Functions in Plants, BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, UK, p. 57-75.

Amor, Y., C. H. Haigler, S. Johnson, M. Wainscott, and D.P. Delmer. 1995. A membrane-associated form of sucrose synthase and its potential role in synthesis of cellulose and callose in plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92: 9353-9357.

Haigler, C. H., J. G. Taylor, and L.K. Martin. 1994. Temperature dependence of fiber cellulose biosynthesis: Impact on fiber maturity and strength. in Proceedings of the Biochemistry of Cotton Workshop, Galveston, TX, Sept. 28-30, Cotton Incorporated, Raleigh, NC. p. 95-100.

Haigler, C.H. 1994. From signal transduction to biophysics: tracheary element differentiation as a model system. (Invited Commentary) International Jourrnal of Plant Science 155: 248-250.

Roberts, A.W. and C.H. Haigler. 1994. Cell expansion and tracheary element differentiation are regulated by extracellular pH in mesophyll cultures of Zinnia elegans L. Plant Physiology 105: 699-706.

Xie, W., N.L. Trolinder, and C.H. Haigler. 1993. Cool temperature effects on cotton fiber initiation and elongation clarified using in vitro cultures. Crop Science 33: 1258-1264.

Taylor, J.G. and C.H. Haigler. 1993. Patterned secondary wall assembly in tracheary elements occurs in a self-perpetuating cascade. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 42: 153-163.

Taylor, J.G., T.P. Owen, Jr., L.T. Koonce, and C.H. Haigler. 1992. Dispersed lignin in tracheary elements treated with cellulose synthesis inhibitors provides evidence that molecules of the secondary cell wall mediate wall patterning. The Plant Journal 2: 959-970.

Haigler, C.H. 1992. The crystallinity of cotton cellulose in relation to cotton improvement. Proc. Cotton Fiber Cellulose: Structure, Function, and Utilization Conference, National Cotton Council of America: Memphis, TN., p. 211-225.

Roberts, E.M., R.R. Nunna, J.Y. Huang, N.L. Trolinder, and C.H. Haigler. 1992. Effects of cycling temperatures on fiber metaBOlism in cultured cotton ovules. Plant Physiology 100: 979-986.

Roberts, A.W. and C.H. Haigler. 1992. Methylxanthines reversibly inhibit tracheary element differentiation in suspension cultures of Zinnia elegans. Planta 186: 586-592.

Roberts, A.W., L.T. Koonce, and C.H. Haigler. 1992. A simplified medium for in vitro tracheary element differentiation in mesophyll cells from Zinnia elegans. Plant Cell, Tissue, and Organ Culture 28: 27-35.

Shang, X.M., J.Y. Huang, C.H. Haigler, and N.L. Trolinder. 1991. Buffer capacity of cotton cells and effects of extracellular pH on growth and somatic embryogenesis in cotton cell suspensions. In vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 27P: 147-152.

Haigler, C.H, N.R. Rao, E.M. Roberts, J.Y. Huang, D.R. Upchurch, and N.L. Trolinder. 1991. Cultured cotton ovules as models for cotton fiber development under low temperatures. Plant Physiology 95: 88-96.

Haigler, C.H. 1991. The relationship between polymerization and crystallization in cellulose biogenesis. in C. H. Haigler and P. Weimer, eds., Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of Cellulose, New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 99-124.

Roberts, A.W. and C.H. Haigler. 1990. Tracheary-element differentiation in suspension cultures of Zinnia requires uptake of extracellular Ca2+. Experiments with calcium-channel blockers and calmodulin inhibitors. Planta 180: 502-509.

Roberts, A.W. and C.H. Haigler. 1989. Rise in chlorotetracycline fluorescence accompanies tracheary element differentiation in suspension cultures of Zinnia. Protoplasma. 152: 37-45.

Haigler, C.H. and A.W. Roberts. 1989. Structural aspects of tracheary element differentiation in suspension cultures of Zinnia elegans. In Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the Electron Microscopy Society of America, G.W. Bailey, ed. San Francisco Press: San Francisco, CA, pp. 768-769.

Haigler, C.H. and H. Chanzy. 1989. Electron diffraction analysis of altered cellulose: Implications for mechanisms of biogenesis. In Cellulose and Wood: Chemistry and Technology, C. Schuerch, ed., John Wiley and Sons: New York, pp. pp. 493-506.

Haigler, C.H. and H. Chanzy. 1988. Electron diffraction analysis of the altered cellulose synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in the presence of fluorescent brightening agents and direct dyes. Journal of Ultrastructure and Molecular Structure Research 98: 299-311.

Haigler, C.H. and R.M. Brown, Jr. 1986. Transport of rosettes from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane in isolated mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans during differentiation to tracheary elements in suspension culture. Protoplasma 134: 111-120.

Raikhel, N., B.A. Palevitz, and C.H. Haigler. 1986. Abscisic acid control of lectin accumulation in wheat seedlings and callus cultures. Effects of exogenous ABA and Fluridone. Plant Physiology 80: 167-171.

Haigler, C.H. 1985. The functions and biogenesis of native cellulose. In Cellulose Chemistry and its Applications, S.H. Zeronian and T.P. Nevell, eds., Ellis Horwood: Chichester, England, pp. 30-83.

Brown, R.M., Jr., C. Haigler, J. Suttie, A. White, E. Roberts, C. Smith, T. Itoh, and C. Cooper. 1983. The biosynthesis and degradation of cellulose. Applied Polymer Symposium 37: 33-78.

Brown, R.M., Jr., C.H. Haigler, and K.M. Cooper. 1982. Experimental induction of altered non-microfibrillar cellulose. Science 218: 1141-1142.

Roberts, E.M., R.W. Seagull, C.H. Haigler, and R.M. Brown, Jr. 1982. Alteration of cellulose microfibril formation in eukaryotic cells: Calcofluor White interferes with microfibril assembly and orientation in Oocystis apiculata. Protoplasma 113: 1-9.

Haigler, C.H., A.R. White, R.M. Brown, Jr., and K.M. Cooper. 1982. Alteration of in vivo cellulose ribbon assembly by carboxymethylcellulose and other cellulose derivatives. Journal of Cell Biology 94: 64-69.

Haigler, C.H. and M. Benziman. 1982. Biogenesis of cellulose I microfibrils occurs by cell-directed self-assembly in Acetobacter xylinum. In Cellulose and Other Natural Polymer Systems, R.M. Brown, Jr., ed., Plenum: New York, pp. 273-296.

Haigler, C.H. and R.M. Brown, Jr. 1981. Probing the relationship of polymerization and crystallization in the biogenesis of cellulose I. The Ekman-Days (1981) 5: 14-16 (Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, Stockholm, Sweden, June 9-12). Swedish Paper Chemistry Institute: Stockholm, Sweden.

Benziman, M., C.H. Haigler, R.M. Brown, A.R. White, and K.M. Cooper. 1980. Cellulose biogenesis: Polymerization and crystallization are coupled processes in Acetobacter xylinum . Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 77: 6678-6682.

Haigler, C.H., R.M. Brown, Jr., and M. Benziman. 1980. Calcofluor White ST alters the in vivo assembly of cellulose microfibrils. Science 210: 903-906.